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金的性质和用途

Release date:2017-08-01  Browse times:286
       纯为黄色,极细金粉为黑色,金的水溶胶视为金粒大小不同,可呈红、蓝或紫色。密度(20℃)19.32克/cm3,熔点1064.43℃,摩氏硬度2.5,维斯显微硬度值为50一55公斤/平方毫米,延展性很大,可压成厚度只有0.01微米的金箔,可拉成只有0.5毫克/米重的细丝。金的导电率仅次于,导热率为银的74%。

金的化学性质稳定,从室温到高温,一般均不氧化。金不溶于一般的酸和碱,但可溶于王水,也可溶于碱金属氰化物中。酸性的硫脲溶液,的溶液,沸腾着的氯化溶液,有氧存在时的钾、钠、钙、的硫代硫酸盐溶液等。能很好地溶解金。碱金属的硫化物会腐蚀金,生成可溶性硫化金。

金是贵金属元素之一。随着我国工业、国际贸易和现代科学技术的发展,对金的需要日益增多,金是许多国家的货币基础,并作为国际贸易最终结算手段之一;工业上除珠宝装饰、陶瓷、镶牙、金笔等传统行业外,近几十年来,金及其合金,在电子、电气、宇航和国防尖端等工业中有特殊用途,如作为涂层、焊料、精密仪器的部件和镀层等。

 
 
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