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自然铜(Copper)

Release date:2017-07-21  Browse times:311
 自然(Copper)

【化学组成】Cu原生自然铜中往往含有少量的Au(可达2%~3%)、Ag(可达3%~4%)、Fe(可达2%~3%)等混入物。而次生自然铜的化学成分则较纯净。

【晶体结构】等轴晶系;,具铜型结构(图Z-1);a0=0.361nm;Z=4。

 

图Z-1铜型晶体结构

【形态】通常呈不规则树枝状、片状或致密块状集合体。以单晶出现时可见有立方体{100}、八面体{111}、菱形十二面体{110},亦可有四六面体{410}等单形。但自然铜完好的晶体很少见。可依(111)成双晶。

【物理性质】铜红色,表面常因氧化而出现棕黑色锖色;条痕铜红色;属光泽,不透明。无解理;断口呈锯齿状。硬度2.5~3。相对密度8.95(纯铜)。具延展性。熔点1083℃。为热和电的良导体。

【成因及产状】自然铜常见于原生热液矿床、含铜硫化物矿床氧化带下部及砂岩铜矿床中,它是各种地质作用过程中还原条件下的产物。

自然铜在地表及氧化环境中不稳定,易氧化成氧化物和碳酸盐,如赤铜矿、孔雀石、蓝铜矿等矿物。

【鉴定特征】铜红色,表面氧化膜呈棕黑色,强延展性,相对密度大。

【主要用途】积聚量大时可作为铜矿石开采。

 
 
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