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Natural graphite VS artificial graphite, who is the real darling of power batteries?

Release date:2018-08-23  source:粉体网  Browse times:1193
        In recent years, the prosperity of the downstream new energy vehicle market has driven the growth of demand for lithium-ion batteries. As one of the four key materials for lithium-ion batteries, anode materials have also ushered in a broader market. Graphite-based carbon materials occupy the most important market in anode materials.

Natural graphite anode VS artificial graphite anode

Graphite anode materials are divided into artificial graphite and natural graphite. The structures of the two are similar, and the physical and chemical properties are the same, but there are big differences in practical applications. So who is the darling of lithium-ion batteries for natural graphite and artificial graphite?

definition

(1) Natural graphite

Graphite is a complex hexagonal double-cone crystal, which is a hexagonal plate crystal. The common single shape has parallel double-sided, hexagonal double-cone and hexagonal column, but the intact crystal form is rare, generally scaly or plate-like, and the aggregate is dense block. Earthy or globular.

There are many types of natural graphite. According to different crystal forms, natural graphite is classified into three types: dense crystalline graphite, flake graphite, and cryptocrystalline graphite. China mainly has two types of scale graphite and cryptocrystalline graphite. The natural graphite anode material is generally made of natural scale crystalline graphite.

(2) Artificial graphite

All graphite materials obtained by organic carbonization and then graphitized high temperature treatment can be called artificial graphite. In the narrow sense, artificial graphite usually refers to carbonaceous raw materials with low impurity content as aggregate and coal tar pitch as binder. A block solid material obtained by processes such as batching, kneading, molding, carbonization, and graphitization.

The aggregate of artificial graphite is divided into three major categories: coal, petroleum, and coal and petroleum. Among them, coal-based needle coke and petroleum coke are the most widely used: generally speaking, a high specific capacity negative electrode uses needle coke as a raw material, and a common specific capacity negative electrode uses inexpensive petroleum coke as a raw material, and asphalt as a binder.

Physical and chemical properties

In terms of physical and chemical properties, natural graphite and artificial graphite have both commonalities and performance differences. For example, natural graphite and artificial graphite are good conductors of heat and electricity, but for graphite powder of the same purity and particle size, natural flake graphite has the best heat transfer performance and electrical conductivity, followed by natural microcrystalline graphite, artificial graphite. lowest. Both performances have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the application areas are different.

Natural graphite has a high capacity, simple process and low price, but the liquid absorption and circulation performance are poor;

The artificial graphite process is more complicated and more expensive, but the cycle and safety performance are better.

Microscopic appearance

The difference in morphology between natural graphite and artificial graphite can be seen from the above figure

Natural graphite has different particle sizes and wide particle size distribution. Untreated natural graphite cannot be directly used as a negative electrode material and needs to be processed after a series of processes.

The artificial graphite has more consistent morphology and particle size distribution. It is generally believed that natural graphite has high capacity, high compaction density and relatively low price, but due to different particle sizes, surface defects are more, and electrolyte The compatibility is also better, and the price will be more expensive.

Production preparation

The natural graphite anode material is obtained by using natural scale flake graphite, which is obtained by pulverization, spheroidization, classification, purification, surface treatment, etc., and its high crystallinity is naturally formed.

Artificial graphite is produced by crushing, granulating, graphitizing, and sieving aggregates and binders. The basic process flow is consistent.

Artificial plant preparation process in a factory

Power battery is more fond of artificial graphite

At present, the anode materials on the market are mainly artificial graphite and natural graphite. Benefiting from the strong demand of power batteries, artificial graphite has become the mainstream of the anode material market with its reliability and safety.

China's anode material market structure changes

China's anode material market production structure change (tons)

Natural graphite and artificial graphite anode materials have different properties, and there are also large differences in practical applications. According to the changes in the market structure and production structure of anode materials in recent years, it can be seen that in 2013, natural graphite in China's anode material market dominated. After 2014, in the competition for the anode material market, the artificial graphite market, which is more suitable for power batteries, accounts for more than natural graphite, and is increasing year by year.

It is expected that in the next few years, the proportion of artificial graphite will continue to rise due to the application of new energy vehicles: At present, most of the anode materials used in domestic lithium batteries for new energy vehicles use artificial graphite, and new energy vehicles are exploding under the support of national policies. At the stage, the power battery will grow sharply. In the next few years, the power battery will be the main engine to drive the sharp increase in the production of artificial graphite.

 
 
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