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Geological effects of lakes and marshes

Release date:2018-11-08  source:东盟  Browse times:240
Lakes and swamps are accumulated water on the land and are an important part of the hydrosphere. The total area of ​​the lake is about 2.7 million square kilometers, and the total area of ​​the swamp is about 3.5 million square kilometers, accounting for about 4.1% of the total area of ​​the mainland. The movement of lakes and marshes is weak, and the geological processes are mainly sedimentary, which can form various important sedimentary minerals.

1. Sedimentation, erosion and transportation of lakes

The lake consists of a large part of the land that consists of water storage depressions (ie lake basins) and water bodies. Their areas vary greatly, and the position is also very different. The cause of the lake basin is divided into internal and external dynamics. The internal dynamics are composed of tectonic lakes, volcanic lakes and Hukou Lake. All external dynamic geological processes can form lakes, such as rivers and lakes, glacial lakes formed by glaciers, and winds. Lakes, sea lakes, karst lakes, lagoons. Lake water sources are mainly atmospheric precipitation, river water, groundwater, and glacial water and residual seawater. Different classifications can be made from the source and chemical composition of the water body. There are waves and tides in the lake, and the power is waves, lakes, currents and turbidity. The geological function of lake water is mainly sedimentation.

Figure 1 Satellite map of Qinghai Lake

The denudation of lakes is also called lake erosion, including mechanical erosion, abrasion and chemical dissolution, among which mechanical erosion is the main. Lake stripping is mainly caused by wave motion. The bigger the wave, the stronger the lake erosion. It mainly occurs in the lakeshore zone and can form various lake erosion features.

The lake erosion products and the materials (mainly debris) brought by various external forces such as lakes and rivers are transported to the lake center by the lake, shore, backflow, turbidity and other powers, and stop at appropriate places. The handling process is the handling of the lake.

        Second, the geological role of the marsh

        The swamp is a fully humid area on the continent, with a large number of moisturizing plants growing in the swamp, and organic matter or peat accumulation. Its genesis is diverse, and its geological processes are mainly bio-deposition, which can generate important minerals such as coal seams.

Figure 2 Swamp

Figure 3 Lake swamp

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