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Gold minerals and ore types

Release date:2018-12-21  source:中南选矿网  Browse times:69
Gold is mainly used for international currency, jewelry, and electronic components. In 2004, world gold production was 2464 tons, and China's gold production was 212 tons. Gold (Au) is a group IB element in the periodic table of the chemical element, with an atomic number of 79 and a relative atomic mass of 197. The pure gold is golden yellow with a density of 19.31 g/cm3, a melting point of 1064.3 ° C, a boiling point of 2707 ° C, a Brinell hardness of 18.5 kg/mm ​​2 and a mineralogical hardness of 3.7. Gold has excellent extensibility. 1g of pure gold can be used to grow filaments up to 3,420m, which can be pressed into a gold foil with a thickness of 0.23×10-8mm. The chemical nature of gold is very stable. Gold is not directly oxidized by oxygen at low or high temperatures. At normal temperature, gold does not work with hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, but it is soluble in aqua regia. Solvents which can dissolve gold are: cyanide solution, thiocyanate solution, thiourea solution, thiosulfate solution. The gold element has a lanthanide contraction property, and its outer electrons are strongly attracted by the nucleus and are not easily ionized, and the chemical affinity with other elements is extremely weak. Therefore, in the natural world, gold has few ionic compounds and is mostly in a metallic state. Further, since the atomic radius of gold is close to the atomic radius of silver, copper, and a platinum group element, an intermetallic compound is often formed with these metal elements. Natural gold-silver solid solutions are widely distributed in the independent minerals of gold. Gold can also form natural compounds with certain semi-metallic elements, such as tellurides, tellurides, tellurides, and the like. There are more than 30 known gold minerals, of which the main industrial minerals list 6-2 can be divided into primary (sulfurized ore) ore, partially oxidized (mixed) ore and oxidized ore according to the degree of ore oxidation. According to the actual situation of gold ore in China, combined with the requirements of mineral processing technology, it can be further divided into: (1) Gold sulfide-poor ore. Most of this ore is quartz vein type, but also complex quartz vein type and fine vein impregnation type. The sulfide content is low (0~15%), mostly pyrite, and in some cases with copper, lead, Minerals such as zinc, tungsten and molybdenum. The natural gold in this type of ore is relatively large in size. Gold is the only object of recovery. Other elements or minerals have no industrial value or can only be recovered as by-products. Higher recovery targets can be achieved with simple processes such as single flotation or full mud cyanidation.

 


(2) Polysulfide gold ore. The content of pyrite or arsenopyrite in this type of ore is high (20% to 45%), and they are also recycled as gold. The grade of gold is low, the change is not big, the natural gold particles are relatively small, and are mostly wrapped in pyrite and arsenopyrite. It is generally easier to select gold and sulphide by flotation; however, the separation of gold from sulphide requires a complex process of combining smelting. (3) Containing polymetallic ore. In addition to gold, some of these ores contain copper, copper, lead, zinc, silver, tungsten and other metal minerals, all of which have separate values. Its characteristics are: containing a considerable amount of sulfides (10% to 20%); natural gold in addition to the close symbiosis with pyrite, mostly closely associated with copper, lead and other minerals; natural gold is unevenly embedded in thickness, particle size change interval Wide; a wide range of minerals for comprehensive utilization. These characteristics determine that such ores generally require a more complex beneficiation process for sorting. (4) Gold-bearing copper ore. This is the main source of associated gold. The difference between this type of ore and the third type of ore is that gold has a low grade but can be used as one of the main elements of comprehensive utilization. The natural gold particle size in the ore is medium, and the symbiotic relationship between gold and other minerals is complex. Most of the ore dressing concentrates gold in copper concentrates and recovers gold during copper smelting. (5) Gold ore containing antimony gold. Gold is still in the natural gold state, but a considerable part of the gold is in the gold telluride. The gangue is quartz, chalcedony quartz and carbonate minerals. Gold telluride is considered to be a class of refractory gold ore because it is more difficult to dissolve in cyanide solution. The concentrate obtained from the ore dressing needs to be pre-treated to further withdraw gold. (6) Carbonaceous gold ore. The main feature of this type of ore is the inclusion of highly adsorbed carbonaceous materials such as graphite, long-chain organic carbon, and organic matter. After the gold is cleaved by cyanidation, these highly adsorbed carbonaceous materials adsorb the gold citrate to the ore. Another feature of this type of ore is that gold is usually symbiotic with pyrite and arsenopyrite, and gold is impregnated with fine particles (wrapped) in it, becoming the so-called "three highs" (high sulfur, high arsenic, high). Carbon ore is the most difficult type of ore to date. To extract gold from such ores, it is necessary to dissociate the gold from the minerals and to eliminate the adsorption of dissolved carbon by the carbonaceous materials.

 
 
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